The Development of Garbage Incinerators
Garbage incineration is suitable for household waste, medical waste, general industrial waste (general industrial waste adopts high-tech measures such as high-temperature combustion, secondary oxygenation, and automatic slag discharge to meet the monitoring requirements for pollution discharge), etc.
Compared to landfilling and composting, garbage incineration saves more land and does not cause surface water and groundwater pollution.
With the acceleration of urbanization and the approaching limit of construction land indicators, garbage incineration has gradually become a practical choice for large and medium-sized cities in the central and eastern regions with dense population, tight land use, and garbage siege.
Since the second half of the 19th century, developed Western countries have been designing and developing waste incineration equipment.
The first solid waste incineration equipment in the world was born in Europe during the second technological revolution. In the second half of the 19th century, Paddington in England had developed into a densely populated industrial city.
In 1870, a garbage incinerator was put into operation in Paddington City. At that time, the moisture and ash content of the garbage were both high, so its calorific value was low and it was difficult to incinerate. Therefore, the operating condition of this incinerator was poor, and it soon ceased operation. In response to the problems of poor quality and difficulty in incineration of garbage, a double-layer grate was first adopted (with strongly burning coal seams on the lower grate), and then in 1884, an attempt was made to mix garbage with coal to improve the combustion characteristics of garbage fuel. However, both attempts did not achieve satisfactory results, and due to the low chimney, the nearby environment was polluted by irritating smoke.
In order to solve the problem of irritating smoke and carbon black pollution, the first measure taken is to increase the incineration temperature to 700 ℃, and later further increase it to 800-1100 ℃. At that time, people were already aware of the impact of combustion air volume and input method on flue gas temperature, so measures such as raising the chimney, configuring supply fans and induced draft fans were successively adopted to increase ventilation and meet the demand for combustion air volume in the incineration process. After the chimney is raised, it also solves the problem of the diffusion of irritating and harmful substances in the smoke.
Due to the significant changes in the type and composition of garbage that may occur with different regions and seasons, garbage incineration equipment must have good fuel adaptability. In this regard, the technical measures taken at that time were to add a garbage drying area in the incinerator and use combustion air preheating.